The directions of space activities are considered. It is shown, that the main role in space exploration in the coming years will belong to unmanned space vehicles, which solve the tasks of communication, navigation, meteorology, Earth remote sensing, orbital debris removal, and Earth protection from comet and asteroid hazard. It is emphasized that the human in near space will play the predominant role of the scientific investigator, though complex scientific research and experiments can be organized with the help of space robots as well, and together with humans in the «man-machine» system.
Three main types of space robots are considered: servicer spacecraft, robotic assistants and planetary robots (rovers). The main tasks of space service robots are spacecraft maintenance in orbital flight, on-orbit assembly of large structures and implementation of research missions. On-orbit services tasks are refueling, repairing, transporting a spacecraft to another orbit, refurbishment of legacy satellites that may not have been designed with servicing in mind.
Different types of robotic assistants are considered: for operation inside the inhabited module of the orbital facility, outside the orbital facility in orbit flight, and on the planets and moons of the Solar system.
A brief overview of the forthcoming robotic space missions is done. Requirements to space robots are discussed.
Space robotics, servicer spacecraft, astronaut robotic assistant, planetary robot.
Year 2015 Issue number 4 Consecutive issue number 9 Pages 3-12
UDC identifier: 001.8:629.78:004.896:621.865.8